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There was much less controversy than had greeted the publication Vestiges of Creation , which had been rejected by scientists, [] but had influenced a wide public readership into believing that nature and human society were governed by natural laws. Its proponents made full use of a surge in the publication of review journals, and it was given more popular attention than almost any other scientific work, though it failed to match the continuing sales of Vestiges. By the mids, evolutionism was triumphant. While Darwin had been somewhat coy about human origins, not identifying any explicit conclusion on the matter in his book, he had dropped enough hints about human's animal ancestry for the inference to be made, [] [] and the first review claimed it made a creed of the "men from monkeys" idea from Vestiges.

Darwin did not publish his own views on this until The naturalism of natural selection conflicted with presumptions of purpose in nature and while this could be reconciled by theistic evolution , other mechanisms implying more progress or purpose were more acceptable. Herbert Spencer had already incorporated Lamarckism into his popular philosophy of progressive free market human society.

He popularised the terms evolution and survival of the fittest , and many thought Spencer was central to evolutionary thinking. Scientific readers were already aware of arguments that species changed through processes that were subject to laws of nature , but the transmutational ideas of Lamarck and the vague "law of development" of Vestiges had not found scientific favour.

Darwin presented natural selection as a scientifically testable mechanism while accepting that other mechanisms such as inheritance of acquired characters were possible. His strategy established that evolution through natural laws was worthy of scientific study, and by , most scientists accepted that evolution occurred but few thought natural selection was significant.

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Darwin's scientific method was also disputed, with his proponents favouring the empiricism of John Stuart Mill 's A System of Logic , while opponents held to the idealist school of William Whewell 's Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences , in which investigation could begin with the intuitive idea that species were fixed objects created by design. Henry Walter Bates presented research in that explained insect mimicry using natural selection.

Alfred Russel Wallace discussed evidence from his Malay archipelago research, including an paper with an evolutionary explanation for the Wallace line. Evolution had less obvious applications to anatomy and morphology , and at first had little impact on the research of the anatomist Thomas Henry Huxley. Huxley wanted science to be secular, without religious interference, and his article in the April Westminster Review promoted scientific naturalism over natural theology, [] [] praising Darwin for "extending the domination of Science over regions of thought into which she has, as yet, hardly penetrated" and coining the term " Darwinism " as part of his efforts to secularise and professionalise science.

Later, the German morphologist Ernst Haeckel would convince Huxley that comparative anatomy and palaeontology could be used to reconstruct evolutionary genealogies. The leading naturalist in Britain was the anatomist Richard Owen , an idealist who had shifted to the view in the s that the history of life was the gradual unfolding of a divine plan. Others that rejected natural selection, but supported "creation by birth", included the Duke of Argyll who explained beauty in plumage by design. Their disagreement over human origins came to the fore at the British Association for the Advancement of Science meeting featuring the legendary Oxford evolution debate.

Darwin published his own explanation in the Descent of Man Evolutionary ideas, although not natural selection, were accepted by German biologists accustomed to ideas of homology in morphology from Goethe 's Metamorphosis of Plants and from their long tradition of comparative anatomy. Bronn 's alterations in his German translation added to the misgivings of conservatives, but enthused political radicals. Ernst Haeckel was particularly ardent, aiming to synthesise Darwin's ideas with those of Lamarck and Goethe while still reflecting the spirit of Naturphilosophie.

Haeckel used embryology extensively in his recapitulation theory , which embodied a progressive, almost linear model of evolution. Darwin was cautious about such histories, and had already noted that von Baer's laws of embryology supported his idea of complex branching. Asa Gray promoted and defended Origin against those American naturalists with an idealist approach, notably Louis Agassiz who viewed every species as a distinct fixed unit in the mind of the Creator, classifying as species what others considered merely varieties.

The political economy of struggle was criticised as a British stereotype by Karl Marx and by Leo Tolstoy , who had the character Levin in his novel Anna Karenina voice sharp criticism of the morality of Darwin's views. Darwin conceded that these could be linked to adaptive characteristics.

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His estimate that the age of the Earth allowed gradual evolution was disputed by William Thomson later awarded the title Lord Kelvin , who calculated that it had cooled in less than million years. Darwin accepted blending inheritance , but Fleeming Jenkin calculated that as it mixed traits, natural selection could not accumulate useful traits. Darwin tried to meet these objections in the 5th edition. Mivart supported directed evolution, and compiled scientific and religious objections to natural selection.

In response, Darwin made considerable changes to the sixth edition. The problems of the age of the Earth and heredity were only resolved in the 20th century. By the mids, most scientists accepted evolution, but relegated natural selection to a minor role as they believed evolution was purposeful and progressive. The range of evolutionary theories during " the eclipse of Darwinism " included forms of " saltationism " in which new species were thought to arise through "jumps" rather than gradual adaptation, forms of orthogenesis claiming that species had an inherent tendency to change in a particular direction, and forms of neo-Lamarckism in which inheritance of acquired characteristics led to progress.

The minority view of August Weismann , that natural selection was the only mechanism, was called neo-Darwinism. It was thought that the rediscovery of Mendelian inheritance invalidated Darwin's views. While some, like Spencer, used analogy from natural selection as an argument against government intervention in the economy to benefit the poor, others, including Alfred Russel Wallace , argued that action was needed to correct social and economic inequities to level the playing field before natural selection could improve humanity further.

Some political commentaries, including Walter Bagehot 's Physics and Politics , attempted to extend the idea of natural selection to competition between nations and between human races. Such ideas were incorporated into what was already an ongoing effort by some working in anthropology to provide scientific evidence for the superiority of Caucasians over non white races and justify European imperialism. Historians write that most such political and economic commentators had only a superficial understanding of Darwin's scientific theory, and were as strongly influenced by other concepts about social progress and evolution, such as the Lamarckian ideas of Spencer and Haeckel, as they were by Darwin's work.

Darwin objected to his ideas being used to justify military aggression and unethical business practices as he believed morality was part of fitness in humans, and he opposed polygenism , the idea that human races were fundamentally distinct and did not share a recent common ancestry.


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The book produced a wide range of religious responses at a time of changing ideas and increasing secularisation. The issues raised were complex and there was a large middle ground. Developments in geology meant that there was little opposition based on a literal reading of Genesis , [] but defence of the argument from design and natural theology was central to debates over the book in the English-speaking world. Natural theology was not a unified doctrine, and while some such as Louis Agassiz were strongly opposed to the ideas in the book, others sought a reconciliation in which evolution was seen as purposeful.

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Baden Powell praised "Mr Darwin's masterly volume [supporting] the grand principle of the self-evolving powers of nature". George Jackson Mivart was among those accepting evolution but attacking Darwin's naturalistic mechanism. Eventually it was realised that supernatural intervention could not be a scientific explanation, and naturalistic mechanisms such as neo-Lamarckism were favoured over natural selection as being more compatible with purpose. Even though the book did not explicitly spell out Darwin's beliefs about human origins , it had dropped a number of hints about human's animal ancestry [] and quickly became central to the debate, as mental and moral qualities were seen as spiritual aspects of the immaterial soul , and it was believed that animals did not have spiritual qualities.

This conflict could be reconciled by supposing there was some supernatural intervention on the path leading to humans, or viewing evolution as a purposeful and progressive ascent to mankind's position at the head of nature. Some conservative Roman Catholic writers and influential Jesuits opposed evolution in the late 19th and early 20th century, but other Catholic writers, starting with Mivart, pointed out that early Church Fathers had not interpreted Genesis literally in this area.

Various alternative evolutionary mechanisms favoured during " the eclipse of Darwinism " became untenable as more was learned about inheritance and mutation. The full significance of natural selection was at last accepted in the s and s as part of the modern evolutionary synthesis. During that synthesis biologists and statisticians, including R. Fisher , Sewall Wright and J.

Haldane , merged Darwinian selection with a statistical understanding of Mendelian genetics. Modern evolutionary theory continues to develop. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, with its tree-like model of branching common descent , has become the unifying theory of the life sciences. The theory explains the diversity of living organisms and their adaptation to the environment. It makes sense of the geological record , biogeography, parallels in embryonic development, biological homologies , vestigiality , cladistics , phylogenetics and other fields, with unrivalled explanatory power; it has also become essential to applied sciences such as medicine and agriculture.

Interest in Darwin's writings continues, and scholars have generated an extensive literature, the Darwin Industry , about his life and work. The text of Origin itself has been subject to much analysis including a variorum , detailing the changes made in every edition, first published in , [] and a concordance , an exhaustive external index published in In a survey conducted by a group of academic booksellers, publishers and librarians in advance of Academic Book Week in the United Kingdom, On the Origin of Species was voted the most influential academic book ever written.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Origin of Species disambiguation. A work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology. The title page of the edition of On the Origin of Species [1]. Darwin's finches by John Gould. Key topics. Introduction to evolution Evidence of evolution Common descent Evidence of common descent. Processes and outcomes. Natural history. History of evolutionary theory.

Fields and applications. Applications of evolution Biosocial criminology Ecological genetics Evolutionary aesthetics Evolutionary anthropology Evolutionary computation Evolutionary ecology Evolutionary economics Evolutionary epistemology Evolutionary ethics Evolutionary game theory Evolutionary linguistics Evolutionary medicine Evolutionary neuroscience Evolutionary physiology Evolutionary psychology Experimental evolution Phylogenetics Paleontology Selective breeding Speciation experiments Sociobiology Systematics Universal Darwinism.

Social implications. Evolution as fact and theory Social effects Creation—evolution controversy Objections to evolution Level of support.

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See also: History of evolutionary thought and History of biology. See also: Charles Darwin's education and Inception of Darwin's theory. See also: Development of Darwin's theory. Main article: Publication of Darwin's theory. See also: Reactions to On the Origin of Species. See also: History of evolutionary thought. In the sixth edition "On" was omitted, so the full title is The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life.

This edition is usually known as The Origin of Species. The 6th is Darwin's final edition; there were minor modifications in the text of certain subsequent issues. See Freeman, R. Retrieved 24 November Darwin Correspondence Project. Retrieved 16 January Would you advise me to tell Murray that my Book is not more un -orthodox, than the subject makes inevitable. That I do not discuss origin of man. Darwin, C. Retrieved 27 June The Idea of Race. Hackett Publishing. The full title [of the book] employs the term 'race' only in the broad biological use of the word, which refers to varieties throughout organic life; however, speculation about the implications of his views specifically for the question of the human races began almost as soon as the book was published.

But even here it does not matter whether the groups are from different 'races' or from the same race. It is nests of honeybees that compete with each other, and human tribes that compete with other human tribes. For Darwin, the question of group selection had nothing special to do with 'race. Darwin turned wholeheartedly to the problem of evolution.

Ever since his Beagle trip he had been convinced that the difference between what naturalists called 'varieties' and what they called 'species' was much less significant than previously thought. If pigeon breeders could create varieties as different as pouters, runts, and fantails, what would prevent nature from doing the same? And, given millions of years, wasn't it possible that a pigeon could be turned into something so radically different we would no longer be willing to call it a pigeon—or even a bird?

Darwin was not the first to have these kinds of thoughts. Seventy years before, his grandfather, Erasmus, had devoted a whole section of his book Zoonomia to the issue of evolution. In , Robert Chambers anonymously published his controversial book, The Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, a sweeping history of the cosmos that came down strongly on the side of evolution, largely on the evidence of fossils the 'vestiges' of creation.

The book was flawed, but popular, and it brought the idea of evolution into the public eye. The opposition to evolution was still strong, but it included among its number a wide range of opinions, from those who thought that all species had been created at the beginning of the world in the same form as they now had, to those who thought that new species were being continuously created to fill new environmental niches, to those who thought that variation within species was within Nature's power but the creation of new species remained in God's hands.

Darwin had two things to contribute to this debate: a wealth of observations on adaptation, and, more importantly, a theory that could explain how new adaptations arose without the guiding hand of a divine Creator. His observations were gained by his own experience on the Beagle, his eight painstaking years of work on barnacles, and the advice and expertise of friends like Hooker. His theory was his own creation. Darwin solved the problem of evolution by pointing to a mechanism that depended on nothing but variation and chance: natural selection.

Many more individuals were born than could be supported by the environment, which meant that some had to die. Which ones died? She herself became a much revered style icon known for her simple yet sophisticated outfits paired with great accessories, such as several strands of pearls. Her early years were anything but glamorous. Her nickname came from another occupation entirely.

Around the age of 20, Chanel became involved with Etienne Balsan, who offered to help her start a millinery business in Paris. She later added stores in Deauville and Biarritz and began making clothes. Her first taste of clothing success came from a dress she fashioned out of an old jersey on a chilly day.

In response to the many people who asked about where she got the dress, she offered to make one for them. Chanel became a popular figure in Parisian literary and artistic worlds. In the s, Chanel took her thriving business to new heights. She launched her first perfume, Chanel No. A deal was ultimately negotiated where the Wertheimer business would take in 70 percent of Chanel No.

Over the years, with No. In , Chanel introduced the now legendary Chanel suit with collarless jacket and well-fitted skirt. She helped women say goodbye to the days of corsets and other confining garments. She took a color once associated with mourning and showed just how chic it could be for evening wear. The international economic depression of the s had a negative impact on Chanel's company, but it was the outbreak of World War II that led her to close her business.

She fired her workers and shut down her shops. After the war, Chanel left Paris, spending some years in Switzerland in a sort of exile. She also lived at her country house in Roquebrune for a time. At the age of 70, in the early s, Chanel made a triumphant return to the fashion world. She first received scathing reviews from critics, but her feminine and easy-fitting designs soon won over shoppers around the world.


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Beginning in , Chanel had a short-lived relationship with composer Igor Stravinsky. The two started a decades-long relationship. She got special permission to stay in her apartment at the Hotel Ritz in Paris, which also operated as German military headquarters. After the war ended, Chanel was interrogated about her relationship with von Dincklage, but she was not charged as a collaborator.

While not officially charged, Chanel suffered in the court of public opinion. Some still viewed her relationship with a Nazi officer as a betrayal of her country.