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Table of contents
- Aries – Loyal, Competitive, Courageous
- Breaking News
- Ariel's Desire by Candace Smith
- Category: Free Ebooks
Of the 65, five species of the flying foxes are reported from the Indian subcontinent which include the Indian flying fox P. The status and geographical limits of this taxon are still uncertain [ 13 ].
It has recently been reported from Peshawar and Charsadda districts [ 20 ]. Fifty specimens of the Indian flying fox Pteropus giganteus were collected from this roost. Ten of them were males while the remaining were females. The genus Cynopterus F. Cuvier, , has seven species [ 14 ]. It consists of those species which possess having shorter and broader muzzle with a deep margination between the nostrils. Of the 7 species, two species of the short-nosed fruit bats are reported from the Indian subcontinent which include the short-nosed fruit bats C.
Typically, this is an Oriental faunal zone species and is confined to warmer sub-tropical areas where there are large numbers of flowering and fruiting trees. This short-nosed fruit bat has been reported from Karachi and Malir by Eates and Murray [ 23 , 25 ]. With the spread of banana cultivation in recent decades up to Hyderabad, it is however, likely that this bat is followed as far north as that city [ 2 ].
Colonies of up to 25 individuals have been recorded in India by Vasishta and Badwaik [ 26 ]. It has been suggested that this species may be beneficial as an agent in seed dispersal feeding on ripe dates and dropping the pits some distance from the food tree [ 27 ], and in pollinating flowers which produce nectar at night. It is probably not numerous enough in Pakistan to do any considerable damage to the fruit crops. Initially, this skeleton was also thought to be of a Rousettus bat, but the dental formula and cranio-morphological measurements confirmed it to be the greater short-nosed bat.
The genus Rousettus Gray, , includes medium-sized fruit bats that are distributed from sub-Saharan Africa, Arabia and Madagascar to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia [ 13 ]. Of the 10 species belonging to this genus, two are reported from the Indian subcontinent which include the fulvous fruit bat R.
Geoffroy, and R. It is a highly gregarious species and colonies vaulted roves, natural rock caves and open wells.
Aries – Loyal, Competitive, Courageous
These roosts were in the more wooded regions in the Himalayan foothill zone and adjacent plains. Being partly migratory, the fulvous fruit bat is mainly a summer visitor to Pakistan with the exception of known Lahore and Malir colonies. The population of this bat does not seem large enough to have a much effect on the fruit industry in such regions of Peshawar and Mardan.
This was only a summer colony [ 29 ] which corroborates their seasonally migratory movements. A total of 22 specimens of R. Two species of this family were recorded from Malakand division. Although both these species have a small dermal ridge on their muzzle, they are distinguishable based on forearm length relative to their tail length. Forearm in R. The genus Rhinopoma E. Geoffroy, has four species worldwide and three of them occur in the Indian subcontinent which include the lesser mouse-tailed bat R. The species is relatively abundant in the Indian subcontinent with one endemic subspecies R.
Report, ; [ 16 , 17 ]. The species has also been reported from Sadiqabad and Qutabpur. Mirza found a large summer colony inhabiting a natural rock cave in the Malakand Hills [ 2 ]. It is also found in Amb in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [ 32 ]. A total of 58 greater mouse-tailed bats were recorded co-roosting with R. According to Roberts [ 2 ], this is much less common species than R. The species has been reported from Amb in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [ 34 ].
According to Bates and Harrison [ 13 ], R. Both the species R. The greater false vampire bat Megaderma lyra E.
Geoffroy, , is the only species of this family found in Pakistan. One colony of these bats was recorded from the study area. The genus Megaderma , E. Geoffroy, , has two species which consists of the greater false vampire M. They are large bats without any tail and extensively developed interfemoral membrane. The genus Megaderma consists of those species having large oval ears, fold of skin across the crown and have an elongated bifurcated tragus [ 2 , 13 ]. Megadermatidae consists of four genera and five species, two of which occur in the Oriental Region and one genus and one species in Pakistan [ 12 , 14 , 24 ].
Megaderma lyra Geoffroy, , differs from M. Because of these differences [ 35 ], M. According to Ref. Since the differences are very slight between E. The area of M. The false vampire bat M. It detects its prey both via echolocation [ 42 ] and based on prey generated rustling noises [ 43 ]. The skin of the nose leaf is pink and naked and roughly lozenge-shaped with a narrow vertical ride running down its center. Ears are bluntly rounded at their tips, sparsely covered with hairs, and pinkish gray color when the animal is alive.
The tragus is pinkish brown, long, and slender, being divided into two lanceolate but unequal lobes. The pelage is fine, soft, and moderately long. The upper surface of the body is a uniform mouse gray faintly washed with brown. The ventral surface is paler, with the hair tips on the throat and belly white; the hair bases are gray.
Dorsally the body fur is blue gray and consists of long silky hair. The belly fur is a paler, more yellowish gray. Whitish hairs extend around the posterior ears bases and on to the wing membrane from the axillae to the groin. The upper lip tends to be rather sparsely haired with a fleshy furrow dividing the middle of the lower lip. Female have two pectoral mammae with two more false teats in the pubic region. Juvenile have a comparatively dark pelage. The wings are broad due to the last or fifth digit being relatively long.
There is no trace of a tail in this species, but the interfemoral membrane is well developed, stretching from heel to heel and being supported by long but weakly developed calcars. The hind feet that are comparatively large is in the development of the first digit which consists of only two joints while the remaining digits have three joints [ 2 , 13 ]. In India, the colonies of this species have been observed in man-made structures such as temples, caves, forts, dilapidated old buildings, underground tunnels, old cow sheds, grain go downs, cellars, open walls, and shallow soap stone mines [ 37 , 44 , 45 ].
At Sukkur in Sindh, it has been found occupying the hillside caves these are shallow man-made caves in limestone conglomerate [ 2 ]. The species has been observed entering the verandah of an occupied house in Karachi to devour its prey [ 23 ]. The British Museum has one specimen, marked Balochistan and it seems likely that this specimen comes from Lasbela.
It has not definitely been recorded anywhere else in Pakistan. In Pakistan, it appears that this bat is rather rare and decidedly local in distribution except in the northern sub-montane zone where it may be more widespread than is presently known. Further collecting will undoubtedly reveal its presence in the valley of Peshawar and possibly Mardan [ 2 ]. The family Rhinolophidae is characterized by a horseshoe-shaped nose leaf on the muzzle which consists of an erect posterior lancet, a lower horizontal horseshoe that surrounds the nostrils, and a perpendicular median sella.
Ariel's Desire by Candace Smith
The genus Rhinolophus Lacepede, , has 76 species worldwide of which 16 species exist in the Indian subcontinent and five have been recorded in Pakistan. These five species include the greater horseshoe bat R. It is considered to be a monogeneric group [ 12 ]. Rhinolophidae bats are easily distinguished from the rest of bat families based on a prominent horseshoe-shaped nose leaf apparatus.
This bat seems to be rare in southern Balochistan because of the lesser supply of suitable insect prey and very dry climate which is unfavorable to the family Rhinolophidae [ 2 ]. These larger greyer specimens have been assigned to the subspecies R. This species is a new record for Pakistan. The first specimen was captured by Mrs. Nora Pendleton from a phosphate mine near Abbottabad [ 2 , 13 ]. The species has also been collected from Afghanistan [ 12 ] and in the dryer parts of Rajasthan, India [ 9 ], so the status of this species is unknown in Pakistan [ 2 ].
Report, Rhinolophus lepidus shortridgei found in South Asia differs from R. Bates [ 13 ] collected specimens of R. Fifteen of them were captured from Fizaghat Kaan 4 male and 11 female , 19 from Nalai Kaan 1 male, 18 female , and 16 from Gull Dara Kaan 5 male, 11 female. It comprises 80 species in 11 genera throughout the world. In Pakistan, it is represented by three genera and four species. It is a medium small species of Hipposideros with characteristically very large ears, the tip of which is broadly rounded off; the feet are small.
You don't want to miss out! That's the day the price goes up, so get your copy now while it's at this low price. This gives you a chance to catch up on my series and save, but only until April 30th. May 1st, the boxed set will no longer be available. We've always seen the elusive prophetess through the eyes of the other characters, mostly Broderick's.
For this book, I spend a lot of time in Malloren's head…and for good reason. I'm going to let you readers see just a peak of what makes this woman tick, and I reveal some startling truths behind the prophecy, which has so turned Broderick's world upside down since the very day he crossed over in Yes…Malloren is certainly to blame. This scene is at the beginning of the book and our hunky vampire hero is putting himself in the friend zone for this novel!
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He isn't running into Davina's arms? In fact, he's fighting her, tooth and nail! So here's a sneak peek from Malloren's point of view…. Broderick pursed his lips. Instead, he cradled it in his hand as he strolled to the window. Poor Broderick was still trying to drown his frustrations in the amber liquid.
Surely, he did it out of habit now, since alcohol had no effect on their kind. He returned his attention out the window. Malloren nodded, recalling that the distance was the reach of his dreams in relation to Davina's location. Are you certain? The parlor in which she sat vanished in favor of the visions rushing through her mind. Familiar, grimy byways and passages of where she'd been hunting surrounded her. The dark alleys faded and she, once again, sat amidst the tastefully decorated room.
Malloren sighed. Thank God! A vision. Davina is in the East End. It's bad enough she's been hurt. I would imagine you wouldn't want to find her living under such horrid conditions. As to why she would be there, I can think of several reasons. Abandoned by a husband, perhaps with child and rejected by her family. He stalked to the decanter to replenish his drink. I've already conceived a multitude of terrifying thoughts just in the last few moments. Honestly, woman! I know!
I am an evil woman, aren't I? So go get your copy now. I think it's still up for pre-order at this very moment I am publishing this post, but you will have it in your eReader by midnight tonight! I'm proud to say this is the second set containing one of my books that has hit this prestigious list of high-selling books — the first being Highland Shifters with Midnight Hunt, Book 3.
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So what is Frostbitten Hearts about? In short, it's my own version of the Jack Frost legend — who he is, how he got his name, and the woman who melted his heart! Jack Frost is a sexy alpha male who will stop at nothing to find the woman he loves! Monika Konrad, the heroine of Midnight Hunt Book 3 , is a fire witch and that's the first book where I introduced this race of magic users.
I Write Like. Analyze your writing! Are you an aspiring author? Follow arialburnz. Here's another Zodiac Shifters story coming your way!! Like this: Like Loading My Entry… He tossed the letter onto the table before her.
Open it. Will love triumph over a bunch of enraged shifters? Release date: Mar. The pull from the Tide was impossible to ignore. The sound of steps started Atreides, forcing him to turn and face the dark walls of the castle. Spring into Paranormal Audiobooks!! Release date: Feb. Thank you for reading my stories!!! Up first… Aquarius — Logical, Curious, Rebellious Tethered by Beth Caudill Evelyn Brooks lives with the freedom only her kind can know—in her human form as a photographer, and in the skies as a falcon.
His throat cleared. He tilted his head down and kissed her. Like a man drowning and only she could save his life. She moaned and pressed against him, wanting so much more.
His blue eyes glittered with need as he stared at her. History Meets Fiction Spoilers Ahead! Thomas J. Bulling — Thousands of letters came into the police and the press of people either claiming to be the Whitechapel Fiend or knowing the identity of the killer, so there weren't too many correspondences that were taken seriously.
However, the Dear Boss letter , which I feature in Midnight Savior , had a connection to the double murders of Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes, due to the reference of cutting a piece of the victim's ear and the two murders in one night. I, therefore, used this opportunity to rectify why a journalist would have key facts related to the double murders if his letters were hoaxes. In Chapter 5, 25 September, , the Whitechapel Fiend forces Thomas to write the letter, and thereby keeps to the historical theory that Thomas J.
In Chapter 7, September 30, — Early Morning, I include a scene through her eyes as she is being murdered by the Whitechapel Fiend…and it was a very tough scene to write. Having to put myself in the mind of the victim and do the research to ensure how he killed her and all the grisly details ended up being a very disturbing experience. I won't post the pictures here. They're just too disturbing. In summary, her face was almost mutilated beyond recognition, her throat was cut through to her spine, and her abdomen was slashed open and stabbed multiple times, even organs removed.
And this is being nice in my description. The only saving grace was she died almost instantly after her throat was cut and the mutilations to her face and body were done post mortem. Of all the victims, Mary Jane Kelly was the youngest and out of pattern for the killer. No one really knows why, so I decided to give the killer motivation by creating this fictional connection to my heroine and hero.
That little slip of paper spells doom for both women. That seals her fate and Belle's. Laurent stalks Mary Jane to get that coveted piece of paper with Broderick's address and poor Mary Jane becomes the last victim of the Jack the Ripper. This murder was the most brutal of them all. The killer had the victim in a secluded room — the woman's one-bedroom flat — for almost a half hour. The gruesome photos can be found HERE. I hope you have a strong stomach. The Exciting Conclusion is Coming Soon! Release Day Moved Up For people who are only followers of my blog, you may have noticed it's been a little quiet lately.
What is she doing there? Whitechapel is within the radius. Her cheeks flushed with heat. I'm leaving without her. Jack Frost is HOT!! I write like Anne Rice. Midnight Conquest. Midnight Captive. Midnight Hunt. Midnight Eclipse. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Buy Now. Well, is it really so unhistorical, so entirely lacking in plausibility, to think that in the midst of the thousands of innocent and silent victims, there may have been someone who—more ferocious, more desperate and less resigned than the others—may have conceived and actually carried out some atrocious plan of vengeance?
I have to admit that the issue is not entirely and purely a matter of history. I am certain that the reasonable suspicion raised by Ariel Toaff has more than once been at least briefly considered by a number of other historians. However, between certain distant and somber pages of the past and today, there is the dark wing of history: the sad and deep sea of the Shoah.
Only a Jew would dare to raise doubts and formulate hypotheses such as the ones Ariel Toaff proposes now, in prudent and measured words. Whatever happens, expect polemics. I would like to know what other Jewish specialists think. As for us, gentiles, we can only stop at the edge of the abyss, respectfully. The book proved to be a bombshell. Selling out in two days, the book provoked irritable comments in the newspapers. This was not unexpected, to be sure. Editors obviously went out of their way to provoke a scandal.
A few days after the book's publication we find the author in the studios of Canale 5, a network not usually identified with cultural topics—hardly the most appropriate site for breaking ancient taboos. And yet, a book of this kind found a publisher who had been thought respectable and readers too. How can we explain it? In some ways one can see the attraction for this rumor in the media.
For many it proved irresistible. The reaction of most historians was extremely critical. The first concerns the use made of sources. Further, the fact that dozens, perhaps hundreds of accounts of ritual murder resemble each other does not prove, in and of itself, that such killings actually occurred. This may in fact prove that the confessions were false the accused told whatever the judges wanted them to say. Toaff relied imprudently on the testimony of Jewish converts and on hagiographical narratives such as those of Bonelli and Divina , written obviously in support of Simonino's elevation to sainthood.
Using hagiographical sources without taking precautions raises a fundamental question: is it possible to study the question of ritual murder accusations narrowly, in isolation, without analyzing the cultural context and, above all, without reconstructing the long development of stereotypes of Jewish difference in Christian theology?
A second problem with Toaff's approach has to do with the mythic dimension of the blood libel. Toaff confuses the myth with the ritual. He keeps thinking from within the myth. Is it possible to approach the question of ritual murder or that of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion logically, factually? This has not kept millions of people, in Russia and now mostly in the Arab world, from swearing that they are true and that they provide an explanation of the world's history.
Finally, there is the nature of Toaff's narrative. It is filled with half truths, a mixture of testimonies and points of view that are not believable. The way in which this book is written encourages the non specialist reader to reach conclusions of a very serious nature. The climate surrounding the reception of Toaff's book deteriorated fast.
On the contrary, such a notion inspires horror. The only blood spilled was that of innocent Jews massacred as a result of unjust and infamous accusations. They hurt Jews over periods as long as centuries. On the Internet, Toaff is on the receiving end of various insinuations unconscious antisemitism, parricidal tendencies, cynicism, strutting in the media.
They are knowledgeable in such matters. Very quickly they have realized, and so have well informed specialists, that in this case the usual standards of scholarly verification and the normal ways of presenting evidence have not been followed. In such circumstances academic freedom does not apply. No one would deny that among Jews, as among others, there can be bad behavior.
But to go from there to claim that religion has sheltered and given its blessing to such crimes, there is a big difference. Such claims tend to confirm one of the most monstrous notions embedded in the antisemitic imagination. To pass this over in silence is not possible. Among the essential principles of Judaism there is the idea that no actions can escape from ethical oversight, at least when one moves beyond pure theoretical speculation to real action in the world. This principle applies to everyone, even to historians—and their responsibility increases as their ideas reach larger segments of the population.
Most likely, Ariel Toaff did not expect this kind of reaction. Defending his book, at first, he spoke of his pride in having eliminated a taboo. But I felt the need to leave myth making behind. Current research stresses that the blood libel cannot concern the entire Jewish community or the majority of the Jews of that period. Yes, we need to expose and to neutralize all forms of religious fundamentalism.
Jewish or Islamic. One cannot defend Judaism by defending its extremists. Will my book be condemned to be burned publicly in the Piazza Giudia, not far from Giordano Bruno? I think that the Italian rabbis have opened their umbrellas long before the thunderstorm. As far as he is concerned, he was only dealing with isolated cases that could be seen as extraordinary. His focus was on a small group of Ashkenazi fundamentalists, acting in a clearly defined region. Sephardic communities were never involved in such practices, which are completely foreign to Hebrew law—in sum, the opposite of what the title, the cover, the style of his book, etc.
Bit by bit, Toaff began to realize the damage that resulted from the sensationalism of the publicity around his book. Gradually, he reached the conclusion that Italy and, perhaps, Europe in general is not as open to free historiographical discussions as Israel. Perhaps the book should have addressed itself to an Israeli public. The risk of misunderstandings and of improper use of my book is lesser there.
Here, at least, I can explain myself. He is probably right. In Israel, history has always been a fundamental ingredient of political reflection. For the past one hundred and twenty years or so, Zionists and the Israeli society created by them, have always scrutinized the Jewish past to decide which elements to incorporate and which to reject. The persistent urgency of all those issues has provoked intense debates, not only inside the academic community, but also in the national press Maariv , Yediot Aharanot , Davar , and, above all, Haaretz.
For instance, in the introduction to his latest book, Elliott Horowitz interpreted certain recent episodes of religious violence as the result of an ancient tradition of hostility toward Christian symbols. For example, the killing of Muslims at the Tomb of the Patriarchs in Hebron during Purim celebrations in , or the incident that occurred ten years later, when a young student from the Har Hamor Yeshiva spat on an Armenian archbishop who carried a cross during a procession in the Old City of Jerusalem.
The Italian situation is, of course, profoundly different. In recent years, history has played an important part in the pages devoted to culture in papers and magazines, and on television screens as well some debates, many documentaries, and series devoted to historical fiction. But there is no question of anything like the urgency of the Israeli press. Center stage you find the fascist past treated again and again recurring themes: the massacre of March , the position of the Church under Pius XII, the resistance as a civil war, the massacre of the Foibe , 66 all this usually presented as the investigation of mysteries, enigmas, and inaudible confessions.
The focus is often biographical: the weakness of Arnaldo Momigliano, of Norberto Bobbio or Alberto Moravia in the face of the fascist regime, Ignacio Silone's role as double agent, Giaime Pintor's debatable attitude toward communism, etc. In public debates, especially, discussion of Jewish history is almost always focused on the Shoah and awareness of Israeli historiography remains very limited. This may be the main difference between the Judaism of the Diaspora and that of Israel. Bitter polemics follow, but the debate stays open and free between the different positions found in a society which is used to discussing such matters without taboos.
It may not be an accident that Toaff lives and works in Tel Aviv. Who knows? It may be that Israeli society is right now in a situation that is too difficult to handle such violent discussions. If Toaff had first published his book in Tel Aviv, would there have been polemics in the press at all? But after all the fuss of the Italian reception, the book was heading for trouble, even in Israel. Right now, conspiracy theories come to the surface again. Extremists, antisemites and Islamic terrorists will make use of these theses to justify their aggressions.
In spite of the backing of several colleagues, the situation changed fast. Please fire him immediately. A few days later, the Education Commission of the Knesset, the Israeli parliament, approved three votes against one a resolution drafted by its president, condemning the book. In the course of the debate, Marina Solodkin and other deputies from the Kadima party went so far as to consider whether it might be appropriate to start thinking about a trial. In any case, the discussion quickly moved on to the broader question of how to control history.
At last, on 15 February, Ariel Toaff announced that his book was to be removed from circulation. I will never allow that those who hate Jews should make use of me or of my research, as an instrument for fanning the flame, once again, that led to the murder of millions of Jews. I would never have expected anything like this from my son, who has always been a careful historian, and now this debatable and dangerous book …. It is not by stating such insanities that one holds on to the veritable essence of Judaism. This has serious consequences for the principle of academic freedom and for our culture which has been at the source of our civilization since the Enlightenment.
Meanwhile, the publication of Pasque di sangue had immediate political consequences in Italy. One could easily say these are trivial matters, to some extent ridiculous even, but they force us to reflect on the political responsibilities of writers. The first reaction is not surprising. How is it possible that the Church took a step backwards? The second development, the most perverse, requires a brief introduction.