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Subjectivism, on the other hand, was never held to be a serious candidate for application to physical theories, despite the fact that its philosophical back-ground strongly resembles that underlying quantum mechanics, at least according to the Copenhagen interpretation. The reasons for this are explored. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Operationism, probability and quantum mechanics. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Born, M. Google Scholar. CrossRef Google Scholar. Carnap, R. Schilpp, La Salle, Ill. Kyburg and H. Smokler eds. Pompilj, Gubbio, Oderisi, pp. Mondadori, Milano, Il Saggiatore. Monari and D. Galavotti, M. Heisenberg, W. If both Poisson and Lexis variation are present and roughly counterbalance such that the variances are roughly nPQ , the resulting sequences of the sexes would be indistinguishable from those generated by binomial sampling as in Table II and the correlations between the sexes will be roughly zero.

This, it is suggested, underlies the above-mentioned failures to find significant correlations between the sexes in very large samples of sibships. If that were so, the two values above would be roughly equal, viz. Lastly, let W be the value by which the variance of a set of sex ratios falls short of the binomial. There is a difficulty. It is not clear how to choose the series of random samples of sex ratios from which W is to be estimated.

Annual series of population sex ratios at birth show slow, significant, unexplained, secular movements Gini, Sex ratio has also sometimes been reported to show seasonal variation too James, b, p. Such phenomena would cause W to be underestimated. So one might wonder whether the annual roughly births in England and Wales could be arbitrarily formed into, say, samples of , whence W could be estimated. It is not clear whether such estimates of W would be stable.

The data presented above in variances of series of sex ratios suggest that W is positive and large compared with the value of 0. Lastly, it is worth emphasizing that this note is provisional and raises more questions than it answers. It suggests that something is seriously wrong with the accepted formulation of the variation of P within and across couples. It is not clear whether that is because W has been overestimated here.

So there is an urgent need for fresh estimates of W. Meanwhile if the present formulation were substantially correct, it might suggest a genetic explanation for the mysterious but significant secular meanderings of population sex ratios described previously Gini, Such an explanation would require a substantial genetic component of the Lexis variation in P Bodmer and Edwards, Hypothetical data to show the effect of the simultaneous existence of Lexis and chaotic Poisson variation.

All the matings show chaotic Poisson variation. The matings in rows 1 and 2 have high average sex ratios. Those in rows 3 and 4 have low average sex ratios. Taken together, the data exemplify Lexis variation. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

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Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Theoretical background. Previous evidence on Markov, Lexis and Poisson variation. History of the estimation of the variation of P.

Data which impugn the above estimate of the variability of P. The inference. Estimating chaotic Poisson and Lexis variation.

The variation of the probability of a son within and across couples William H. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract It is suggested that there is a flaw in the currently accepted account of the variation of P , the probability of a boy, within and across couples. A similar phenomenon was reported. He gave the 24 monthly sex ratios of births in Vienna — The expected variance is therefore 0. The observed variance was 0. Table I. Open in new tab. Table II. Arbuthnott, I.

Probability, statistics, and truth

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Potashnik, G. Powell, R. Totey, S. Von Mises, R. Second Revised English Edition prepared by H. George Allen and Unwin, London, p.

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